Kiwi Hayward


In 1847, specimens of the plant were collected by the agent for the Royal Horticultural Society, London. Cultivation spread from China in the early 20th century when seeds were introduced to New Zealand by Isabel Fraser, the principal of Wanganui Girls’ College, who had been visiting mission schools in China. The seeds were planted in 1906 by a Wanganui nurseryman, Alexander Allison, with the vines first fruiting in 1910.

People who tasted the fruit thought it had a gooseberry flavour, so began to call it the Chinese gooseberry, but being from the genus Actinidia, it is not related to the gooseberry family, Grossulariaseae.  The familiar cultivar Actinidia deliciosa ‘Hayward’ was developed by Hayward Wright in Avondale, New Zealand, around 1924. This is the most widely grown cultivar in the world. Chinese gooseberry was initially grown in domestic gardens, but commercial planting began in the 1940s. In 1959, Turners and Growers named it kiwifruit, after New Zealand’s national bird, the kiwi —brown and furry.


The fruit characteristics ranged from 

  • 72.28 g for average fruit weight, 
  • 59.41, 46.28 and 42.87 mm for fruit length, width and thickness, 
  • 49.03 mm for the geometric mean diameter, 
  • 0.825% for sphericity and 66.52 cm(3) for the volume of fruit, respectively. 


The bulk density, fruit density and porosity were determined as 575.27 kg/m(3), 1,093 kg/m(3) and 47.13%. 

The highest coefficient of static friction was obtained on plywood as 0.190, followed by polyethylene, rubber and galvanized steel sheet as 0.173, 0.163 and 0.158, respectively. 

The total soluble solid content, acidity, vitamin C, ash and total nitrogen content of kiwifruit cv. Hayward were 7.32%, 1.64%, 108 mg/100g, 0.71 g/100 g and 0.84%, respectively. 

The fresh fruits have 1.09 mg/100g total chlorophylls and flesh colour data represented as L, a and b were 57.18, 17.25 and 37.46, respectively.



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